While natural wood has a rustic, breathtaking beauty by itself, its color may not match or complement the tones you have in your home. You may also want your wood to have a particular look or project certain qualities. Wood staining is a coloring technique that helps you keep almost everything you like about the wood’s natural appearance while enhancing the beauty of its original qualities. Staining allows you to change the wood’s color while keeping the grain pattern visible and distinctive, adding another dimension to the wood’s appearance. But despite all these advantages to staining, the stain can look blotchy and unevenly distributed without the proper preparation. This problem can easily and quickly get resolved using a wood conditioner. But the question most woodworkers ask is, how long after wood conditioner can I stain?
The recommended time window between conditioning and staining is ideally 15 minutes to two hours. When the conditioner is still left to dry after 2 hours have passed, it begins to lose its effectiveness. In some cases, the results could be worse than even when no conditioner is applied.
When working with extensive projects, the time limit may present a considerable problem, and you could mistakenly exceed the time limit. To avoid this and all the related issues, the best thing to do would be to divide your project into smaller portions, then condition and stain them before moving on to the following segments.
What happens If You Don’t Use Wood Conditioner Before Staining?
If you stain your wood before applying the wood conditioner, the stain will distribute itself unevenly, causing unsightly blotches. This uneven distribution is due to varying densities and porosity in different areas of the wood. You can see an excellent demonstration of this property by applying stain to a sponge of varying densities. In the less dense regions of the sponge, the stain will penetrate more deeply, while in the denser areas, the stain will remain closer to the surface. This same phenomenon is observed in porous woods, causing a blotchy and splotch appearance that looks unprofessional.
These blotches can appear in both hardwoods and softwoods as both types can be porous. Some examples of porous softwoods include pine-which is popular among woodworkers due to its availability and affordability- fir and birch. An example of porous hardwood includes maple.
To avoid this uneven staining, you apply a wood conditioner to the wood before staining. The wood conditioner works by penetrating the wood and temporarily sealing the wood to give a uniform absorption rate. The stain that you create after that is then much more consistent.
There is some controversy in the woodworking space on gel stains’ role in eliminating the need for pre-stain wood conditioning. Some woodworkers believe that while brush-on conditioners are necessary if you plan to use a rub-on stain on specific wood types, you can use gel stains without conditioning as they are less prone to blotch. However, many expert woodworkers still recommend treating the wood with a pre-stain wood conditioner for the best results.
What Are the Different Types of Wood Conditioners?
When buying a wood conditioner, you can choose between an oil-based one or one that is water-based. The standard guiding principle is to purchase what matches the wood stain you plan to use.
- Oil-based wood conditioners
You can use an oil-based wood conditioner if you plan to use an oil-based stain. These conditioners will make your wood project look more professional and attractive and prevent streaking and blotching.
- Water-based wood conditioners
Woodworkers use water-based conditioners when applying a water-based stain afterward.
How to Apply Wood Conditioner
Correctly applying the wood conditioner will ensure that it has maximum effect and ensures even distribution of the wood stain when you use it. Below are the steps for the proper application of wood conditioning.
Step 1: Prepare the wood
You need to address and repair all the blemishes on the wood before applying a pre-stain wood conditioner. If there are any scratches, holes, gouges, or cracks on the wood’s surface, fill these spaces using an appropriate wood filler that matches the wood’s color. Be careful not to smear the filler around, as you will need to do some extra sanding to remove it. Also, ensure that you remove any glue residue from the wood surface.
Light sanding by hand is also necessary to prepare the wood for the conditioner and staining. Sanding will help you get rid of any minor scratches and nicks. It also opens the wood pores to accept more conditioner and stain. If there is any glaze created from any factory processes, sanding down the wood will help eliminate it for better, more even penetration. After sanding, use a vacuum to remove all the sawdust. Then use a moistened, clean cloth to remove any remaining dust. Make sure the surface is immaculate for the success of your wood conditioner.
It is also crucial to test the conditioner on an inconspicuous spot or a separate piece of wood before applying it. Wood can be unpredictable, and it is much better to be careful before making the actual application.
Step 2: The application
When applying the pre-stain wood conditioner, you can use either a cloth or brush to liberally coat all your wood surfaces. Work while following the direction of the wood grain. Let the conditioner sit for about 5 to 15 minutes, then wipe off any excess to achieve full penetration.
Depending on the conditioner you are using and the type of wood, you will likely need to apply the wood stain shortly after conditioning. If the stain appears to be absorbed by the wood too readily, you may need to use a second coat of conditioner.
Can I make a Pre-stain Conditioner at Home?
Yes, you can. Whether you are trying to save on some money or do not have the time to run to the store, making a pre-stain wood conditioner at home is a viable option. Wood conditioner is typically a wood finish that you reduce to a thin consistency.
Experts recommend making your wood conditioner using a wood thinner with a solvent base other than one with a base of water. This distinction is because water-based finishes are more complex and turning them into an effective wood conditioner will require more than just adding water. Solvents that you can use instead include shellac, lacquer, and varnish. You can reduce varnish with turpentine or with mineral spirits, shellac with denatured alcohol, and lacquer with lacquer thinner.
The final product concentration depends on the wood you plan to condition and the type of finish you are using. You will also need to experiment with a few ratios of the finish and reducing agent before finding one that works for you. Test each variation on a small piece of wood and apply stain afterward to see the color depth you should expect. If the stain does not penetrate well or comes out too light, you can add more thinner and then keep adjusting to get the perfect mix.
How to Apply Wood Stain.
Pre-stain conditioning helps prepare wood for staining. But what exactly is staining, and how should you do it to achieve the best results?
Wood stain is a type of paint that has colorants dissolved in a solvent used to color wood. They are ideal for the woodworker looking to color their wood without hiding the wood’s grain patterns. While natural, unstained wood can be genuinely stunning, its color sometimes does not match the room’s tones or does not have a look you are trying to achieve. Wood stains will highlight the wood’s beautiful grain patterns while giving it a rich, luscious look.
When selecting a wood stain, there are two available options:
- An oil-based stain
Most oil-stains typically use linseed oil as a base. The stain, therefore, requires a lot of drying time and gives a smooth finish. Additionally, oil-based stains do not raise the wood grain, eliminating the need for sanding the wood after application. You can identify oil stains through the thinning and the clean-up solution you need to use. You can either rub or brush on these oil stains, but oil stains are better suited for brushing.
- A water-based stain
Water-based stains use water as the solvent and the binder. Some of the advantages of water-based stains are that they are easier to apply, less toxic, and less smelly. They are an excellent choice if you plan to use a water-based finish as they don’t bond well when applied over oil-based stains. Water-based stains dry quickly, making for a quick process, though they raise the wood’s grain. For this reason, you will need to prepare the wood, i.e., raise the wood grain and sand the surface before staining.
Other types of stains you can use include gel stains which are thick oil-based stains. Though they are pretty messy to apply, they give a smooth finish and seldom cause blotching, even on more porous woods.
Below is a comprehensive analysis of how to properly apply wood stains.
- Preparation– Just as with the wood conditioner application, you must also prepare the wood properly before applying the stain. After the repair, sanding, vacuuming, and cleaning, you need to use a wood conditioner. As stated above, the wood conditioner will help you achieve an attractive and professional look distinctly different from the blotchy appearance of wood that is not stained.
- Application– before applying the wood stain, stir the can contents thoroughly to ensure that no pigments have settled at the bottom and that they distribute evenly. Test the stain on a small piece of wood to ensure that it matches and complements the wood as you desired. You can better apply water-based stains by rubbing them with a cloth, oil-based stains using a natural bristle brush, and gel stains applied with a rag.
- Post-application – After applying the wood stain, you can then apply a protective topcoat. We recommend that the coat you plan to use shares the same solvent base as the stain.
It is vital to note that the wood conditioner will very likely lighten your stain color to some degree. Therefore, you may find it necessary to apply a second stain coat before reaching your desired color concentration.
Watch the video below on how to stain a deck:
Do You Sand After Applying Wood Conditioner?
Yes, you will need to sand the wood after applying the wood conditioner. Though whether you sand or not will depend on whether you are using an oil-based or water-based wood conditioner. You will need to sand the surface when using a water-based pre-stain conditioner. The sanding is required because water-based conditioners make the wood fibers swell. You will then need to lightly sand the surface using a fine-grit sandpaper a few minutes after the application.
Does Oak Need to be Conditioned Before Staining?
Yes, you can condition oak before staining though it is not necessary. Oak has become an even more popular wood and is used widely in construction, making internal fixtures, and furniture construction. Oak also has open pores that readily absorb stain and a solid and distinctive grain pattern. These characteristics make oak look attractive with almost all stain colors.
The reason why conditioning is not necessary for oak is that it does not tend to turn blotchy when stained without conditioning. However, like almost all woods, the stain will be more even if you first apply a pre-stain wood conditioner. To make sure that the stain you apply penetrates the oak wood’s pores, use a clean cloth to work the stain deep into the pores after applying it to the wood liberally.
Pre-stain wood conditioner is a vital piece of the wood finishing process. Conditioning transforms what would likely be an unsightly final product into one of exquisite beauty. When applied carefully with careful consideration to the necessary procedures and pitfalls, the stain you use afterward will come out looking well distributed.
Still, a question frequently asked by woodworkers is…..
How Long After Wood Conditioner Can I Stain?
You will need to apply the wood stain within 15 minutes to 2 hours of using the pre-stain conditioner for the best results.
We appreciate you for reading to the end of this article and hope to have answered any questions you might have had and addressed any concerns. The comment section below is open for any suggestions, comments, or queries.